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EV literature (RSS feed from PubMed)

Search terms: exosomes OR "extracellular vesicles" OR microvesicles OR microparticles. Direct link to the PubMed search here.

Prostate carcinoma cell-derived exosomal MicroRNA-26a modulates the metastasis and tumor growth of prostate carcinoma.

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Prostate carcinoma cell-derived exosomal MicroRNA-26a modulates the metastasis and tumor growth of prostate carcinoma.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Jun 20;117:109109

Authors: Wang X, Wang X, Zhu Z, Li W, Yu G, Jia Z, Wang X

Abstract
Prostate carcinoma may develop into metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (mCRPC) after endocrine therapy. Exosomal microRNAs play an important role in the regulation of tumor microenvironment. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of exosomal miR-26a on tumor phenotype of prostate carcinoma. Low-grade prostate carcinoma cell line (LNCAP) and mCRPC cell line (PC-3) were treated as experimental subjects according to their miR-26a expressions. Wound healing, transwell and colony-forming unit assays were performed after miR-26a mimic/inhibitor transfection. Then, exosomes were isolated from LNCAP and PC-3 cells, and the levels of exosomal miR-26a were determined. After co-culture of LNCAP (PC-3) cells with PC-3 (LNCAP) exosomes, changes in malignant behaviors were measured. Moreover, LNCAP/PC-3 exosomes were injected into xenograft tumor mice to determine effects of the exosomes on tumorigenicity of LNCAP and PC-3 cells. MiR-26a showed a potently inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, migration and invasion of LNCAP and PC-3 cells. LNCAP exosomes had a higher miR-26a level, compared with PC-3 exosomes. Overexpression of miR-26a attenuated the enhanced malignant behavior of LNCAP cells induced by PC-3 exosomes, and miR-26a inhibition could reverse the inhibitory effects of LNCAP exosomes on PC-3 cells. Exosomal miR-26a could significantly alter the expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors. Moreover, LNCAP exosomes suppressed the tumorigenicity of PC-3 cells, while PC-3 exosomes could promote the tumorigenicity of LNCAP cells. Our data suggest that exosomal miR-26a derived from prostate carcinoma cells had a suppressive effect on the metastasis and tumor growth of prostate carcinoma.

PMID: 31229922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in neurodegenerative disorders.

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Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in neurodegenerative disorders.

Neurobiol Dis. 2019 Jun 20;:104512

Authors: You Y, Ikezu T

Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous cell-derived membranous vesicles which carry a large diversity of molecules such as proteins and RNA species. They are now considered to be a general mode of intercellular communication by direct transfer of biomolecules. Emerging evidence demonstrates that EVs are involved in multiple pathological processes of brain diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we investigate the current knowledge about EV biology. We also provide an overview of the roles of EVs in related brain diseases, particularly in neurodegenerative disorders. Finally, we discuss their potential applications as novel biomarkers as well as the developments of EV-based therapies.

PMID: 31229685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Astrocyte-derived exosomes suppress autophagy and ameliorate neuronal damage in experimental ischemic stroke.

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Astrocyte-derived exosomes suppress autophagy and ameliorate neuronal damage in experimental ischemic stroke.

Exp Cell Res. 2019 Jun 20;:

Authors: Pei X, Li Y, Zhu L, Zhou Z

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of astrocyte-derived exosomes (AS-Exo) on neuronal damage in ischemic stroke. We isolated astrocytes from 3- to 4-day-old C57BL/6 mice and astrocytes were identified by GFAP immunostaining. Exosomes were obtained from astrocyte supernatant by overspeed centrifugation. For investigating the effect of AS-Exo on the apoptosis of neurons after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), the exosome labeling and uptake by neurons were observed by confocal laser microscopy, then HT-22 cell vitality and apoptosis were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in OGD-induced HT-22 was analyzed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis-related protein in HT-22 was analyzed by Western blot. For investigating the effect of AS-Exo on the OGD neurons autophagy, expression of Beclin-1, LC3-I, LC3-II and P62 in OGD-induced HT-22 was analyzed by Western blot. For animal experiments, C57BL/6 mice (6-8 weeks old) models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were used to create permanent focal ischemia. AS-Exo were injected intravenously through the tail vein into ischemic mice at a concentration of 80 μg per 2 ml after 60 min of the ligation operation The results showed that AS-Exo enhanced neurons viability; inhibited OGD-induced apoptosis, inhibited OGD-induced expressions of caspase-3 and Bax and levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in HT-22 cells. Further findings showed AS-Exo inhibited OGD-induced neurons apoptosis via regulating autophagy. AS-Exo ameliorated neuronal damage through regulating autophagy in vivo. Our data indicate that AS-Exo suppress autophagy and ameliorate neuronal damage in experimental ischemic stroke.

PMID: 31229506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Proteomic analysis of urinary extracellular vesicles reveal biomarkers for neurologic disease.

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Proteomic analysis of urinary extracellular vesicles reveal biomarkers for neurologic disease.

EBioMedicine. 2019 Jun 19;:

Authors: Wang S, Kojima K, Mobley JA, West AB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) harbor thousands of proteins that hold promise for biomarker development. Usually difficult to purify, EVs in urine are relatively easily obtained and have demonstrated efficacy for kidney disease prediction. Herein, we further characterize the proteome of urinary EVs to explore the potential for biomarkers unrelated to kidney dysfunction, focusing on Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHODS: Using a quantitative mass spectrometry approach, we measured urinary EV proteins from a discovery cohort of 50 subjects. EVs in urine were classified into subgroups and EV proteins were ranked by abundance and variability over time. Enriched pathways and ontologies in stable EV proteins were identified and proteins that predict PD were further measured in a cohort of 108 subjects.
FINDINGS: Hundreds of commonly expressed urinary EV proteins with stable expression over time were distinguished from proteins with high variability. Bioinformatic analyses reveal a striking enrichment of endolysosomal proteins linked to Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's disease. Tissue and biofluid enrichment analyses show broad representation of EVs from across the body without bias towards kidney or urine proteins. Among the proteins linked to neurological diseases, SNAP23 and calbindin were the most elevated in PD cases with 86% prediction success for disease diagnosis in the discovery cohort and 76% prediction success in the replication cohort.
INTERPRETATION: Urinary EVs are an underutilized but highly accessible resource for biomarker discovery with particular promise for neurological diseases like PD.

PMID: 31229437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Influence of casein on the formation of whey protein microparticles obtained by dry heating at an alkaline pH.

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Influence of casein on the formation of whey protein microparticles obtained by dry heating at an alkaline pH.

Food Res Int. 2019 Aug;122:96-104

Authors: Schong E, Famelart MH

Abstract
Dry heating (DH) at 100 °C for 36 h of a whey protein isolate powder conditioned at pH 9.5 leads to the formation of stable, large and porous whey protein microparticles (PMs), resulting from the crosslinking of proteins inside the powder. These PMs could be used as high-viscosity food ingredients. Casein, present as a contaminant in whey protein powders, has been shown to become incorporated into the PMs. In this study, we investigated the effect of adding increasing amounts of sodium caseinate to whey protein powders on the formation of PMs during DH at 100 °C for 36 h. In addition, we studied PM formation during DH of a micellar casein-enriched milk protein powder (Casmic). The browning index of the dry-heated powders, and the size and water content of the microparticles were also characterized. We confirmed that sodium caseinate was incorporated into the PMs. The highest PM D[4,3] values (270 μm) were observed for powders with around 40% caseinate. Powders without added caseinate displayed D[4,3] values of 150 μm. The yield of conversion of proteins into PMs increased from 0.6 to 0.8 g/g with caseinate addition, whereas the amount of water entrapped in the PMs decreased from around 30 to 20 g/g. PMs were also formed by DH of the Casmic powder, but these particles were smaller, with sizes of around 80 μm. In conclusion, our study shows that the process of DH at pH 9.5 could be applied to all milk proteins to obtain PMs with functional properties that could be used in the food industry.

PMID: 31229134 [PubMed - in process]

SPI microgels applied to Pickering stabilization of O/W emulsions by ultrasound and high-pressure homogenization: rheology and spray drying.

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SPI microgels applied to Pickering stabilization of O/W emulsions by ultrasound and high-pressure homogenization: rheology and spray drying.

Food Res Int. 2019 Aug;122:383-391

Authors: Benetti JVM, do Prado Silva JT, Nicoletti VR

Abstract
Soybean Protein Isolate (SPI) is a by-product from soybean oil industries with good nutritional and functional properties. Denaturation of hydrated SPI can change its properties, allowing the formation of gel-like particles, which can be used to stabilize emulsions without addition of surfactants. SPI microgel particles were produced by denaturation of hydrated SPI, followed by high pressure homogenization or sonication, with different NaCl or NaF contents, aiming the formation of small particles capable to stabilize O/W emulsions and acting as wall material for microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying. The presence of NaF in the suspensions decreased the charge intensity of SPI microgels, leading to formation of significantly bigger SPI microgel particles. Based on Creaming Index (CI), all the emulsions were stable for, at least, 21 days at room temperature. The presence of salt affected minimally the droplet size of the emulsions, though there has been an increase in flocculation. All the emulsions presented shear-thinning behavior and a strong shear rate dependence when salt was present in the system. The microspheres produced by spray drying of the emulsions were spherical and showed few aggregate formation. In addition, they presented high values of oil retention (> 80 wt%) and acceptable values of moisture content (< 4 wt%). SPI microgel particles produced by high-pressure homogenization or sonication may be used to stabilize emulsions with low oil contents. These emulsions can be further spray dried to microencapsulate lipophilic compounds using SPI microgels as wall material.

PMID: 31229091 [PubMed - in process]

 

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