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Aug 23, 2016

Join the SELECTBIO Extracellular Vesicles Virtual Event made available from September 21st, and hear leading researchers talk about topics within EV biology and therapeutic potential!

 

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General information, events and/or links.

 

 

EV literature (RSS feed from PubMed)

Search terms: exosomes OR "extracellular vesicles" OR microvesicles OR microparticles. Direct link to the PubMed search here.

CD 18-mediated adhesion is required for the induction of a proinflammatory phenotype in lung epithelial cells by mononuclear cell-derived extracellular vesicles.

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CD 18-mediated adhesion is required for the induction of a proinflammatory phenotype in lung epithelial cells by mononuclear cell-derived extracellular vesicles.

Exp Cell Res. 2018 Feb 21;:

Authors: Neri T, Scalise V, Passalacqua I, Giusti I, Lombardi S, Balia C, D'Alessandro D, Berrettini S, Pedrinelli R, Paggiaro P, Dolo V, Celi A

Abstract
Extracellular vesicles are submicron vesicles that upregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators by lung epithelial cells. We investigated whether these structures adhere to lung epithelial cells, and whether adhesion is a prerequisite for their proinflammatory activity. Extracellular vesicles were generated by stimulation of normal human mononuclear cells with the calcium ionophore A23187, and labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Adhesion of vesicles to monolayers of immortalized bronchial epithelial (16HBE) and alveolar (A549) cells was analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The role of candidate adhesion receptors was evaluated with inhibitory monoclonal antibodies and soluble peptides. The synthesis of proinflammatory mediators was assessed by ELISA. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the generation of closed vesicles with an approximate size range between 50 and 600nm. Adhesion of extracellular vesicles to epithelial cells was upregulated upon stimulation of the latter with tumour necrosis factor-α. Adhesion was blocked by an anti-CD18 antibody, by peptides containing the sequence RGD and, to a lesser extent, by an antibody to ICAM-1. The same molecules also blocked the upregulation of the synthesis of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induced by extracellular vesicles. CD18-mediated adhesion of extracellular vesicles is a prerequisite for their proinflammatory activity.

PMID: 29476835 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Biogenesis and function of extracellular vesicles in cancer.

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Biogenesis and function of extracellular vesicles in cancer.

Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Feb 21;:

Authors: Bebelman MP, Smit MJ, Pegtel DM, Baglio SR

Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous multi-signal messengers that support cancer growth and dissemination by mediating the tumor-stroma crosstalk. Exosomes are a subtype of EVs that originate from the limiting membrane of late endosomes, and as such contain information linked to both the intrinsic cell 'state' and the extracellular signals cells received from their environment. Resolving the signals affecting exosome biogenesis, cargo sorting and release will increase our understanding of tumorigenesis. In this review we highlight key cell biological processes that couple exosome biogenesis to cargo sorting in cancer cells. Moreover, we discuss how the bidirectional communication between tumor and non-malignant cells affect cancer growth and metastatic behavior.

PMID: 29476772 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exosomes from C2C12 myoblasts enhance osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts by delivering miR-27a-3p.

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Exosomes from C2C12 myoblasts enhance osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts by delivering miR-27a-3p.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 Feb 21;:

Authors: Xu Q, Cui Y, Luan J, Zhou X, Li H, Han J

Abstract
Many regulators have been identified to participate in the cross-talk between muscle and bone, however, most previous studies focus on secreting proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that exosomes from myoblasts C2C12 can promote pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 differentiation to osteoblasts. We revealed that the effect of C2C12 exosomes depended on its miR-27a-3p component, they can increase miR-27a-3p level in the recipient cells, and decrease its direct target adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) expression, thus activating β-catenin pathway. Furthermore, C2C12 exosomes failed to exert above effects when miR-27a-3p was deprived. These findings indicates exosomal microRNAs can be regarded as a novel type of "myokines" with osteogenesis promoting potential, which would broad our understanding of the muscle-bone interaction under physiological and pathological conditions.

PMID: 29476741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exosomes deliver ROS for regeneration.

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Exosomes deliver ROS for regeneration.

Nat Cell Biol. 2018 Mar;20(3):225-226

Authors: Krämer-Albers EM

PMID: 29476149 [PubMed - in process]

Plasma exosomes induced by remote ischaemic preconditioning attenuate myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury by transferring miR-24.

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Plasma exosomes induced by remote ischaemic preconditioning attenuate myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury by transferring miR-24.

Cell Death Dis. 2018 Feb 23;9(3):320

Authors: Minghua W, Zhijian G, Chahua H, Qiang L, Minxuan X, Luqiao W, Weifang Z, Peng L, Biming Z, Lingling Y, Zhenzhen W, Jianqing X, Huihui B, Xiaozhong W, Xiaoshu C

Abstract
Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) is well known to protect the myocardium against ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that have become the key mediators of intercellular communication. Various studies have confirmed that circulating exosomes mediate RIPC. However, the underlying mechanisms for RIPC-induced exosome-mediated cardioprotection remain elusive. In our study, we found that the expression level of miR-24 was higher in exosomes derived from the plasma of rats subjected to RIPC than in exosomes derived from the plasma of control rats in vivo. The rat plasma exosomes could be taken up by H9c2 cells. In addition, miR-24 was present in RIPC-induced exosomes and played a role in reducing oxidative stress-mediated injury and decreasing apoptosis by downregulating Bim expression in H2O2-treated H9c2 cells in vitro. In vivo, miR-24 in RIPC-induced exosomes reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, attenuated the infarct size and improved heart function. Furthermore, the apoptosis-reducing effect of miR-24 was counteracted by miR-24 antagomirs or inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we provided evidence that RIPC-induced exosomes could reduce apoptosis by transferring miR-24 in a paracrine manner and that miR-24 in the exosomes plays a central role in mediating the protective effects of RIPC.

PMID: 29476052 [PubMed - in process]

Review: Microfluidics technologies for blood-based cancer liquid biopsies.

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Review: Microfluidics technologies for blood-based cancer liquid biopsies.

Anal Chim Acta. 2018 Jul 05;1012:10-29

Authors: Sun Y, Haglund TA, Rogers AJ, Ghanim AF, Sethu P

Abstract
Blood-based liquid biopsies provide a minimally invasive alternative to identify cellular and molecular signatures that can be used as biomarkers to detect early-stage cancer, predict disease progression, longitudinally monitor response to chemotherapeutic drugs, and provide personalized treatment options. Specific targets in blood that can be used for detailed molecular analysis to develop highly specific and sensitive biomarkers include circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes shed from tumor cells, cell-free circulating tumor DNA (cfDNA), and circulating RNA. Given the low abundance of CTCs and other tumor-derived products in blood, clinical evaluation of liquid biopsies is extremely challenging. Microfluidics technologies for cellular and molecular separations have great potential to either outperform conventional methods or enable completely new approaches for efficient separation of targets from complex samples like blood. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of blood-based targets that can be used for analysis of cancer, review microfluidic technologies that are currently used for isolation of CTCs, tumor derived exosomes, cfDNA, and circulating RNA, and provide a detailed discussion regarding potential opportunities for microfluidics-based approaches in cancer diagnostics.

PMID: 29475470 [PubMed - in process]

 

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