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Search terms: exosomes OR "extracellular vesicles" OR microvesicles OR microparticles. Direct link to the PubMed search here.

Extracellular vesicles in human semen modulate antigen-presenting cell function and decrease downstream antiviral T cell responses.

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Extracellular vesicles in human semen modulate antigen-presenting cell function and decrease downstream antiviral T cell responses.

PLoS One. 2019;14(10):e0223901

Authors: Vojtech L, Zhang M, Davé V, Levy C, Hughes SM, Wang R, Calienes F, Prlic M, Nance E, Hladik F

Abstract
Human semen contains trillions of extracellular vesicles (SEV) similar in size to sexually transmitted viruses and loaded with potentially bioactive miRNAs, proteins and lipids. SEV were shown to inhibit HIV and Zika virus infectivity, but whether SEV are able also to affect subsequent immune responses is unknown. We found that SEV efficiently bound to and entered antigen-presenting cells (APC) and thus we set out to further dissect the impact of SEV on APC function and the impact on downstream T cell responses. In an APC-T cell co-culture system, SEV exposure to APC alone markedly reduced antigen-specific cytokine production, degranulation and cytotoxicity by antigen-specific memory CD8+ T cells. In contrast, inhibition of CD4+ T cell responses required both APC and T cell exposure to SEV. Surprisingly, SEV did not alter MHC or co-stimulatory receptor expression on APCs, but caused APCs to upregulate indoleamine 2,3 deoxygenase, an enzyme known to indirectly inhibit T cells. Thus, SEV reduce the ability of APCs to activate T cells. We propose here that these immune-inhibitory properties of SEV may be intended to prevent immune responses against semen-derived antigens, but can be hi-jacked by genitally acquired viral infections to compromise adaptive cellular immunity.

PMID: 31622420 [PubMed - in process]

Encapsulation of plant-derived bioactive ingredients through electrospraying for nutraceuticals and functional foods applications.

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Encapsulation of plant-derived bioactive ingredients through electrospraying for nutraceuticals and functional foods applications.

Curr Med Chem. 2019 Oct 16;:

Authors: Gómez-Mascaraque LG, Rubio AL

Abstract
The electrospraying technique, which consists of electrohydrodynamic atomization of polymeric fluids, can be used to generate dry nano- and microparticles by subjecting a polymer solution, suspension or melt to a high voltage (typically in the range of 7-20 kV) electric field. This potential can be exploited for developing nano- and microencapsulation structures under mild temperature conditions. and, tThus, it constitutes a promising alternative to conventional microencapsulation techniques for sensitive ingredients, like most plant-derived bioactive compounds, especially for their application in the food sector. Given the importance of plants as one of the major sources of dietary bioactive compounds, significant much research attention has been recently paid to research to the encapsulation of phytochemicals through novel techniques such as electrospraying, aiming to provide new tools for the development of innovative functional food products and nutraceuticals. In this review, the latest advances in the application of electrospraying for nano- and microencapsulation of phytochemicals are discussed, with a focus on their potential use in the food sector.

PMID: 31622198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Biodegradable Polymer Microparticles with Tunable Shapes and Surface Textures for Enhancement of Dendritic Cells Maturation.

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Biodegradable Polymer Microparticles with Tunable Shapes and Surface Textures for Enhancement of Dendritic Cells Maturation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019 Oct 17;:

Authors: Hussain M, Xie J, Wang K, Wang H, Tan Z, Liu Q, Geng Z, Shezad K, Noureen L, Jiang H, Xu J, Zhang L, Zhu J

Abstract
In this report, we present a facile approach to produce biodegradable polymeric microparticles with uniform sizes and controllable morphologies by blending hydrophobic poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and amphiphilic poly(D,L-lactic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-b-PEG) in microfluidic chip. Microparticles with tentacular, hollow hemispherical and Janus structures were obtained after complete evaporation of organic solvent by manipulating the interfacial behavior of emulsion droplets, as well as the phase separation behavior inside the droplets. The number and length of the tentacles on the surface of tentacular microparticles could be tailored by varying the initial concentration and blending ratios of the polymers. The organic solvent played an important role in controlling the morphologies of microparticles. For example, blending PLA16k-b-PEG5k with PLGA100k in dichloromethane resulted in tentacular microparticles, whereas hollow hemispherical microparticles were obtained in trichloromethane. Moreover, these microparticles with controllable shapes and surface textures have significant influence on the immune response of dendritic cells (DCs), showing a morphology-dependent enhancement of DC maturation.

PMID: 31622077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Proteomics comparison of exosomes from serum and plasma between ultracentrifugation and polymer-based precipitation kit methods.

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Proteomics comparison of exosomes from serum and plasma between ultracentrifugation and polymer-based precipitation kit methods.

Electrophoresis. 2019 Oct 17;:

Authors: Cao F, Gao Y, Chu Q, Wu Q, Zhao L, Lan T, Zhao L

Abstract
Exosomes are vesicles with sizes ranging from 30 to 150 nm. The analysis and detection of blood exosomes offers an effective route for cancer diagnosis, prognosis assessment, and therapeutic evaluation of diseases. Due to the difference in separation procedure, collection method and the usage of anticoagulants, serum and plasma samples show diversity test results. In order to evaluate the isolation effect of exosomes in serum and plasma samples, two commonly used exosomal isolation methods, ultracentrifugation and polymer-based precipitation kit, were used, respectively. And the isolation effects were evaluated by comparing the composition and abundant of proteins from isolated exosomes based on MS-based proteomics analysis. The results showed that the plasma exosomes extracted by ultracentrifugation identified more exosome biomarkers, and the concentration of these biomarkers were higher than others. And plasma exosomes could be a better sample for blood-based proteomics research of exosomes. It would be more useful for future targeted biomarker discovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31621929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Biomimetic and bioinspired strategies for oral drug delivery.

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Biomimetic and bioinspired strategies for oral drug delivery.

Biomater Sci. 2019 Oct 17;:

Authors: Hu X, Yang G, Chen S, Luo S, Zhang J

Abstract
Oral drug delivery remains the most preferred approach due to its multiple advantages. Recently there has been increasing interest in the development of advanced vehicles for oral delivery of different therapeutics. Among them, biomimetic and bioinspired strategies are emerging as novel approaches that are promising for addressing biological barriers encountered by traditional drug delivery systems. Herein we provide a state-of-the-art review on the current progress of biomimetic particulate oral delivery systems. Different biomimetic nanoparticles used for oral drug delivery are first discussed, mainly including ligand/antibody-functionalized nanoparticles, transporter-mediated nanoplatforms, and nanoscale extracellular vesicles. Then we describe bacteria-derived biomimetic systems, with respect to oral delivery of therapeutic proteins or antigens. Subsequently, yeast-derived oral delivery systems, based on either chemical engineering or bioengineering approaches are discussed, with emphasis on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer as well as oral vaccination. Finally, bioengineered plant cells are introduced for oral delivery of biological agents. A future perspective is also provided to highlight the existing challenges and possible resolution toward clinical translation of currently developed biomimetic oral therapies.

PMID: 31621709 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neuronal exosomes in saliva of Parkinson's disease patients: A pilot study.

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Neuronal exosomes in saliva of Parkinson's disease patients: A pilot study.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2019 Sep 09;67:21-23

Authors: Rani K, Mukherjee R, Singh E, Kumar S, Sharma V, Vishwakarma P, Bharti PS, Nikolajeff F, Dinda AK, Goyal V, Kumar S

PMID: 31621600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cancer-derived exosomes loaded with ultrathin palladium nanosheets for targeted bioorthogonal catalysis.

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Cancer-derived exosomes loaded with ultrathin palladium nanosheets for targeted bioorthogonal catalysis.

Nat Catal. 2019 Oct;2(10):864-872

Authors: Sancho-Albero M, Rubio-Ruiz B, Pérez-López AM, Sebastián V, Martín-Duque P, Arruebo M, Santamaría J, Unciti-Broceta A

Abstract
The transformational impact of bioorthogonal chemistries has inspired new strategies for the in vivo synthesis of bioactive agents through non-natural means. Among these, palladium (Pd) catalysts have played a prominent role in the growing subfield of bioorthogonal catalysis by producing xenobiotics and uncaging biomolecules in living systems. However, delivering catalysts selectively to specific cell types still lags behind catalyst development. Here we have developed a bio-artificial device consisting of cancer-derived exosomes loaded with Pd catalysts by a method that enables the controlled assembly of Pd nanosheets directly inside the vesicles. This hybrid system mediates Pd-triggered dealkylation reactions in vitro and inside cells and displays preferential tropism for their progenitor cells. The use of Trojan exosomes to deliver abiotic catalysts into designated cancer cells creates the opportunity for a new targeted therapy modality: exosome-directed catalyst prodrug therapy, whose first steps are presented herein with the cell-specific release of the anticancer drug panobinostat.

PMID: 31620674 [PubMed]

Exosomes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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Exosomes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol. 2019;9:894

Authors: Xiao C, Song F, Zheng YL, Lv J, Wang QF, Xu N

Abstract
Exosomes are small membranous vesicles that contain proteins, lipids, genetic material, and metabolites with abundant information from parental cells. Exosomes carry and deliver bioactive contents that can reprogram the functions of recipient cells and modulate the tumor microenvironment to induce pathological events through cell-to-cell communication and signal transduction. Tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are involved in most aspects of cancer initiation, invasion, progression, immunoregulation, therapeutic applications, and treatment resistance. In addition, HNSCC-derived exosomes can be used to obtain information on diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in circulating blood and saliva. Currently, the biology, mechanisms, and applications of TDEs in HNSCC are still unclear, and further research is required. In this review, we discuss various aspects of exosome biology, including exosomal components, exosomal biomarkers, and molecular mechanisms involved in immunoregulation, cancer metastasis, and therapy resistance. We also describe recent applications to update our understanding of exosomes in HNSCC.

PMID: 31620359 [PubMed]

HTLV-1 Extracellular Vesicles Promote Cell-to-Cell Contact.

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HTLV-1 Extracellular Vesicles Promote Cell-to-Cell Contact.

Front Microbiol. 2019;10:2147

Authors: Pinto DO, DeMarino C, Pleet ML, Cowen M, Branscome H, Al Sharif S, Jones J, Dutartre H, Lepene B, Liotta LA, Mahieux R, Kashanchi F

Abstract
Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) is a neglected and incurable retrovirus estimated to infect 5 to 10 million worldwide. Specific indigenous Australian populations report infection rates of more than 40%, suggesting a potential evolution of the virus with global implications. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), and a neurological disease named HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Even though HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs from cell-to-cell, there is still a gap of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of viral spread and disease progression. We have recently shown that Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) ubiquitously produced by cells may be used by HTLV-1 to transport viral proteins and RNA, and elicit adverse effects on recipient uninfected cells. The viral proteins Tax and HBZ are involved in disease progression and impairment of autophagy in infected cells. Here, we show that activation of HTLV-1 via ionizing radiation (IR) causes a significant increase of intracellular Tax, but not EV-associated Tax. Also, lower density EVs from HTLV-1-infected cells, separated by an Iodixanol density gradient, are positive for gp61+++/Tax+++/HBZ+ proteins (HTLV-1 EVs). We found that HTLV-1 EVs are not infectious when tested in multiple cell lines. However, these EVs promote cell-to-cell contact of uninfected cells, a phenotype which was enhanced with IR, potentially promoting viral spread. We treated humanized NOG mice with HTLV-1 EVs prior to infection and observed an increase in viral RNA synthesis in mice compared to control (EVs from uninfected cells). Proviral DNA levels were also quantified in blood, lung, spleen, liver, and brain post-treatment with HTLV-1 EVs, and we observed a consistent increase in viral DNA levels across all tissues, especially the brain. Finally, we show direct implications of EVs in viral spread and disease progression and suggest a two-step model of infection including the release of EVs from donor cells and recruitment of recipient cells as well as an increase in recipient cell-to-cell contact promoting viral spread.

PMID: 31620104 [PubMed]

Potential Novel Strategies for the Treatment of Dental Pulp-Derived Pain: Pharmacological Approaches and Beyond.

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Potential Novel Strategies for the Treatment of Dental Pulp-Derived Pain: Pharmacological Approaches and Beyond.

Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:1068

Authors: Schuh CMAP, Benso B, Aguayo S

Abstract
The diagnosis and management of pain is an everyday occurrence in dentistry, and its effective control is essential to ensure the wellbeing of patients. Most tooth-associated pain originates from the dental pulp, a highly vascularized and innervated tissue, which is encased within mineralized dentin. It plays a crucial role in the sensing of stimuli from the local environment, such as infections (i.e. dental caries) and traumatic injury, leading to a local inflammatory response and subsequently to an increase in intra-pulp pressure, activating nerve endings. However, thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli also have the ability to generate dental pulp pain, which presents mechanisms highly specific to this tissue and which have to be considered in pain management. Traditionally, the management of dental pulp pain has mostly been pharmacological, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids, or restorative (i.e. removal of dental caries), or a combination of both. Both research areas continuously present novel and creative approaches. This includes the modulation of thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential cation channels (TRP) by newly designed drugs in pharmacological research, as well as the use of novel biomaterials, stem cells, exosomes and physical stimulation to obtain pulp regeneration in regenerative medicine. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present an up-to-date account of causes underlying dental pain, novel treatments involving the control of pain and inflammation and the induction of pulp regeneration, as well as insights in pain in dentistry from the physiological, pharmacological, regenerative and clinical perspectives.

PMID: 31620000 [PubMed]

Management of Delayed Skin Necrosis Following Hyaluronic Acid Filler Injection Using Pulsed Hyaluronidase.

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Management of Delayed Skin Necrosis Following Hyaluronic Acid Filler Injection Using Pulsed Hyaluronidase.

J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2019 Jul-Sep;12(3):183-186

Authors: Chauhan A, Singh S

Abstract
Facial fillers are minimally invasive aesthetic procedures performed for facial rejuvenation and contouring all over the world. Fillers even in the most experienced hands can lead to fatal complications such as vascular complications that need to be managed immediately with the help of hyaluronidase protocols mentioned in literature. In this case report, a patient was asymptomatic with no signs of vascular occlusion such as blanching or poor capillary refill for 48 h. He came after more than 48 h of the filler injection with complaints of pulsating pain in the right infraorbital and nasolabial area. We noticed necrosed microvesicles in the infraorbital artery territory with signs of impending skin necrosis extending from right infraorbital region up to the nasolabial fold (slightly medial to it). He was treated immediately with three pulsed doses of 500 units higher dilation of 10 ml each every hour (reconstitution carried out using 3mL normal saline). The skin color improved with decreased pain, and the next day (after 14 hours) we injected 500 units of hyaluronidase in higher dilution of 10mL as slight redness was still present. Skin redness, swelling, and pain disappeared the following day. Skin was completely healed and by 15 days we noticed slight post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, which was easily managed with Q-switched laser and creams. We hereby report a case of delayed skin necrosis (>48 h) following filler injections in the cheek area, in the infraorbital artery vascular territory, which was successfully managed with pulsed dose of hyaluronidase.

PMID: 31619891 [PubMed]

Dissecting the theranostic potential of exosomes in autoimmune disorders.

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Dissecting the theranostic potential of exosomes in autoimmune disorders.

Cell Mol Immunol. 2019 Oct 16;:

Authors: Jayaseelan VP, Arumugam P

PMID: 31619771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Serum Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) mRNA Protected by Exosomes as a Potential Biomarker for Gastric Cancer.

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Serum Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) mRNA Protected by Exosomes as a Potential Biomarker for Gastric Cancer.

Med Sci Monit. 2019 Oct 17;25:7770-7783

Authors: Dong Z, Sun X, Xu J, Han X, Xing Z, Wang D, Ge J, Meng L, Xu X

Abstract
BACKGROUND Our previous research revealed that membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is overexpressed and plays a crucial role in gastric cancer (GC) progression. Exosomes are important for GC carcinogenesis, and the exosomal contents are ideal biomarkers. However, the expression of exosomal MT1-MMP mRNA in serum and its potential significance in GC remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of exosomal MT1-MMP mRNA in serum of patients with GC, chronic gastritis, or atypical hyperplasia, and healthy controls was detected using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Serum CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4 were also measured by electrochemiluminescence assay. RESULTS Exosomes were isolated and identified in serum, and serum exosomal MT1-MMP mRNA was found to be higher in patients with GC compared with healthy controls and patients with chronic gastritis or atypical hyperplasia (all P<0.05). Serum exosomal MT1-MMP mRNA was significantly correlated with tumor diameter, differentiation, Borrmann type, invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis, distal metastasis, and TNM stage. The AUC of exosomal MT1-MMP mRNA was 0.788 (95% CI: 0.714-0.850) with 63.9% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity, and was higher than that of CEA (0.655 (95% CI: 0.573-0.730)). The combination of 2 markers gave an AUC of 0.821 (95% CI: 0.750-0.878), which was better than with the individual marker. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 75.6%, 83.9%, 94.7%, and 47.3%, respectively. Moreover, the multiple logistic regression model showed that tumor diameter, differentiation, invasion depth, and exosomal MT1-MMP mRNA were the risk factors for lymphatic metastasis in GC. CONCLUSIONS Our results characterized serum exosomal MT1-MMP mRNA in GC, providing a foundation for discovering serum exosomes-targeted biomarkers for GC diagnosis.

PMID: 31619663 [PubMed - in process]

New Technologies in Rice Derivatives.

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New Technologies in Rice Derivatives.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2019;65(Supplement):S54-S58

Authors: Anselmi C, Centini M, Buonocore A

Abstract
In this research the incapsulation of ferulic acid (FA) in advanced systems of protection with the aim of improving its stability and photostability was studied. Lipoparticles and polymeric microparticles as incapsulation systems were prepared and characterized. Lipoparticles were completely of natural origin, while microparticles were obtained using chitosan as natural polymer. In both systems FA stability was greatly increased and its organoleptic properties in the emulsions did not change.

PMID: 31619647 [PubMed - in process]

Alveolar macrophage secretion of vesicular SOCS3 represents a platform for lung cancer therapeutics.

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Alveolar macrophage secretion of vesicular SOCS3 represents a platform for lung cancer therapeutics.

JCI Insight. 2019 Oct 17;4(20):

Authors: Speth JM, Penke LR, Bazzill JD, Park KS, de Rubio RG, Schneider DJ, Ouchi H, Moon JJ, Keshamouni VG, Zemans RL, Lama VN, Arenberg DA, Peters-Golden M

Abstract
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Although the alveolar macrophage (AM) comprises the major resident immune cell in the lung, few studies have investigated its role in lung cancer development. We recently discovered a potentially novel mechanism wherein AMs regulate STAT-induced inflammatory responses in neighboring epithelial cells (ECs) via secretion and delivery of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) within extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here, we explored the impact of SOCS3 transfer on EC tumorigenesis and the integrity of AM SOCS3 secretion during development of lung cancer. AM-derived EVs containing SOCS3 inhibited STAT3 activation as well as proliferation and survival of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Levels of secreted SOCS3 were diminished in lungs of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and in a mouse model of lung cancer, and the impaired ability of murine AMs to secrete SOCS3 within EVs preceded the development of lung tumors. Loss of this homeostatic brake on tumorigenesis prompted our effort to "rescue" it. Provision of recombinant SOCS3 loaded within synthetic liposomes inhibited proliferation and survival of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro as well as malignant transformation of normal ECs. Intratumoral injection of SOCS3 liposomes attenuated tumor growth in a lung cancer xenograft model. This work identifies AM-derived vesicular SOCS3 as an endogenous antitumor mechanism that is disrupted within the tumor microenvironment and whose rescue by synthetic liposomes can be leveraged as a potential therapeutic strategy for lung cancer.

PMID: 31619584 [PubMed - in process]

Prion Protein in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

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Prion Protein in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 15;20(20):

Authors: Ryskalin L, Busceti CL, Biagioni F, Limanaqi F, Familiari P, Frati A, Fornai F

Abstract
The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is an evolutionarily conserved cell surface protein encoded by the PRNP gene. PrPc is ubiquitously expressed within nearly all mammalian cells, though most abundantly within the CNS. Besides being implicated in the pathogenesis and transmission of prion diseases, recent studies have demonstrated that PrPc contributes to tumorigenesis by regulating tumor growth, differentiation, and resistance to conventional therapies. In particular, PrPc over-expression has been related to the acquisition of a malignant phenotype of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in a variety of solid tumors, encompassing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), osteosarcoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, and primary brain tumors, mostly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Thus, PrPc is emerging as a key in maintaining glioblastoma cancer stem cells' (GSCs) phenotype, thereby strongly affecting GBM infiltration and relapse. In fact, PrPc contributes to GSCs niche's maintenance by modulating GSCs' stem cell-like properties while restraining them from differentiation. This is the first review that discusses the role of PrPc in GBM. The manuscript focuses on how PrPc may act on GSCs to modify their expression and translational profile while making the micro-environment surrounding the GSCs niche more favorable to GBM growth and infiltration.

PMID: 31618844 [PubMed - in process]

Luteolin: A Natural Flavonoid Enhances the Survival of HUVECs against Oxidative Stress by Modulating AMPK/PKC Pathway.

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Luteolin: A Natural Flavonoid Enhances the Survival of HUVECs against Oxidative Stress by Modulating AMPK/PKC Pathway.

Am J Chin Med. 2019;47(3):541-557

Authors: Ou HC, Pandey S, Hung MY, Huang SH, Hsu PT, Day CH, Pai P, Viswanadha VP, Kuo WW, Huang CY

Abstract
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Dietary supplementation of anti-oxidants has been reported to have beneficial effects on the prevention of atherogenic diseases. Luteolin (a natural flavonoid) has been shown to possess antimutagenic, antitumorigenic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of luteolin on cardiovascular systems are poorly explored. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether luteolin could protect against oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell injury and explore the underlying mechanisms. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pre-treated with luteolin followed by hydrogen peroxide induction (H2O2). Our results showed that luteolin protected against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and ameliorated ROS and superoxide generation. In addition, we found that luteolin treatment inhibited the H2O2-induced membrane assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits, which was further confirmed by specifically inhibiting NADPH oxidase using DPI treatment. Furthermore, pAMPK protein expression was enhanced and p-PKC isoforms were significantly down-regulated by luteolin treatment in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar effect was observed upon DPI treatment. However, co-treatment with the specific inhibitor of AMPK (Compound C) restored p-PKC levels suggesting the role of AMPK signaling in regulating p-PKC expression under oxidative stress condition in HUVECs. Finally, we confirmed using siRNAs and specific inhibitor and/or activator of AMPK (AICAR) that luteolin treatment induced AMPK is a key player and regulator of activated expression of PKC isoforms and thereby confers protection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs.

PMID: 30966772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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