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EV literature (RSS feed from PubMed)

Search terms: exosomes OR "extracellular vesicles" OR microvesicles OR microparticles. Direct link to the PubMed search here.

Tumor-Derived EV-Encapsulated miR-181b-5p Induces Angiogenesis to Foster Tumorigenesis and Metastasis of ESCC.

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Tumor-Derived EV-Encapsulated miR-181b-5p Induces Angiogenesis to Foster Tumorigenesis and Metastasis of ESCC.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2020 Mar 13;20:421-437

Authors: Wang Y, Lu J, Chen L, Bian H, Hu J, Li D, Xia C, Xu H

Abstract
Pathological angiogenesis is necessary for tumor development and metastasis. Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in mediating the crosstalk between cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells. To date, whether and how microRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in tumor-derived EVs affect angiogenesis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Here, we showed that miR-181b-5p, an angiogenesis-promoting miRNA of ESCC, can be transferred from ESCC cells to vascular endothelial cells via EVs. In addition, ESCC-derived EVs-miR-181b-5p dramatically induced angiogenesis by targeting PTEN and PHLPP2, and thereby facilitated tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover, miR-181b-5p was highly expressed in ESCC tissues and serum EVs. High miR-181b-5p expression level in ESCC patients was well predicted for poor overall survival. Our work suggests that intercellular crosstalk between tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells is mediated by tumor-derived EVs. miR-181b-5p-enriched EVs secreted from ESCC cells are involved in angiogenesis that control metastasis of ESCC, providing a potential diagnostic biomarker or drug target for ESCC patients.

PMID: 32244169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Microparticles in the pathogenesis of TB: Novel perspectives for diagnostic and therapy management ofMycobacterium tuberculosisinfection.

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Microparticles in the pathogenesis of TB: Novel perspectives for diagnostic and therapy management ofMycobacterium tuberculosisinfection.

Microb Pathog. 2020 Mar 31;:104176

Authors: Moreira JD, Silva HR, de Toledo VPCP, Guimarães TMPD

Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually chronic and has a progressive clinical course. Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy, TB is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global multi-drug resistant TB is reaching epidemic proportions. Interrupt transmission through early detection and treatment of the patients is a main element of the drug-resistant TB control strategy. However, many drugable targets in pathogens are already inhibited by current antibiotics and there is not a biomarker that indicate normal or pathogenic biological processes, or pharmacological responses to therapeutic intervention. Studies directed at evaluate key elements of host response to infection may identify biomarkers with measurable characteristics that indicate pathogenic biological processes. Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are membrane-coated vesicles that represent subcellular elements and have been identified increasingly in a broad range of diseases and emerging as potential novel biomarker to pathological processes. In addition, MPs carry contents from their cells of origin as bioactive molecules as cytokines, enzymes, surface receptors, antigens and genetic information and may provide a means of communication between cells. Molecules-loaded MPs may interplay with the immune system and therefore can acts on inflammation, cell activation and migration. Therefore, MPs may be an important factor to immune process during Mtb infection, especially in pulmonary granulomas and influence the outcome of infection. Their characterization may facilitate an appropriate diagnosis, optimize pharmacological strategies and might be further explored as potential targets for future clinical interventions.

PMID: 32244042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Engineering approaches for drug delivery systems production and characterization.

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Engineering approaches for drug delivery systems production and characterization.

Int J Pharm. 2020 Mar 31;:119267

Authors: Barba AA, Dalmoro A, Bochicchio S, De Simone V, Caccavo D, Iannone M, Lamberti G

Abstract
To find and to test the therapeutic effectiveness (and the limited adverse effects) of a new drug is a long and expensive process. It has been estimated a period of ten years and an expense of the order of one billion USD are required. Meanwhile, even if a promising molecule has been identified, there is the need for operative methods for its delivery. The extreme case is given by gene therapy, in which molecules with tremendous in-vitro efficacy cannot be used in practice because of the lack in useful vector systems to deliver them. Most of the recent efforts in pharmaceutical sciences are focused on the development of novel drug delivery systems (DDSs). In this review, the work done recently on the development and testing of novel DDSs, with particular emphasis on the results obtained by European research, is summarized. In the first section of the review the DDSs are analyzed accordingly with their scale-size: starting from nano-scale (liposomes, nanoparticles), up to the micro-scale (microparticles), until the macroscopic world is reached (granules, matrix systems). In the following two sections, non-conventional testing methods (mechanical methods and bio-relevant dissolution methods) are presented; at last, the importance of mathematical modeling to describe drug release and related phenomena is reported.

PMID: 32243969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Approaches to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance in allergy and autoimmunity: Focus on antigen-presenting cells and extracellular vesicles.

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Approaches to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance in allergy and autoimmunity: Focus on antigen-presenting cells and extracellular vesicles.

Scand J Immunol. 2020 Apr 03;:

Authors: Nazimek K, Bryniarski K

Abstract
Increasing prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases urges clinicians and researchers to search for new and efficient treatments. Strategies that activate antigen-specific immune tolerance and simultaneously maintain immune reactivity to all other antigens deserve special attention. Accordingly, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) seem to be the best suited for orchestrating these mechanisms by directing T cell immune responses toward a tolerant subtype. Recent advances in understanding cell-to-cell communication via extracellular vesicles (EVs) make the latter promising candidates for reprogramming APCs toward a tolerant phenotype, and for mediating tolerogenic APC function. Thus, comprehensive studies have been undertaken to describe the interactions of APCs and EVs naturally occurring during immune tolerance induction, as well as to develop EV-based maneuvers enabling the induction of immune tolerance in an antigen-specific manner. In this review, we summarize the findings of relevant studies, with a special emphasis on future perspectives on their translation to clinical practice.

PMID: 32243636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exosome-transmitted lncRNA UFC1 promotes non-small-cell lung cancer progression by EZH2-mediated epigenetic silencing of PTEN expression.

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Exosome-transmitted lncRNA UFC1 promotes non-small-cell lung cancer progression by EZH2-mediated epigenetic silencing of PTEN expression.

Cell Death Dis. 2020 Apr 02;11(4):215

Authors: Zang X, Gu J, Zhang J, Shi H, Hou S, Xu X, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Mao F, Qian H, Zhu T, Xu W, Zhang X

Abstract
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been suggested as important regulators of cancer development and progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, the biological roles and clinical significance of lncRNA UFC1 in NSCLC remain unclear. We detected the expression of UFC1 in tumor tissues, serum, and serum exosomes of NSCLC patients by qRT-PCR. Gene overexpression or silencing were used to examine the biological roles of UFC1 in NSCLC. RNA immunoprecipitation and ChIP assays were performed to evaluate the interaction between UFC1 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and the binding of EZH2 to PTEN gene promoter. Rescue study was used to access the importance of PTEN regulation by UFC1 in NSCLC progression. UFC1 expression was upregulated in tumor tissues, serum, and serum exosomes of NSCLC patients and high level of UFC1 was associated with tumor infiltration. UFC1 knockdown inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion while promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. UFC1 overexpression led to the opposite effects. Mechanistically, UFC1 bound to EZH2 and mediated its accumulation at the promoter region of PTEN gene, resulting in the trimethylation of H3K27 and the inhibition of PTEN expression. UFC1 knockdown inhibited NSCLC growth in mouse xenograft tumor models while the simultaneous depletion of PTEN reversed this effect. NSCLC cells derived exosomes could promote NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion through the transfer of UFC1. Moreover, Exosome-transmitted UFC1 promotes NSCLC progression by inhibiting PTEN expression via EZH2-mediated epigenetic silencing. Exosome-mediated transmit of UFC1 may represent a new mechanism for NSCLC progression and provide a potential marker for NSCLC diagnosis.

PMID: 32242003 [PubMed - in process]

Treatment with mesenchymal-derived extracellular vesicles reduces injury-related pathology in pyramidal neurons of monkey perilesional ventral premotor cortex EVs reduce injury-related pathology in vPMC.

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Treatment with mesenchymal-derived extracellular vesicles reduces injury-related pathology in pyramidal neurons of monkey perilesional ventral premotor cortex EVs reduce injury-related pathology in vPMC.

J Neurosci. 2020 Mar 27;:

Authors: Medalla M, Chang W, Calderazzo SM, Go V, Tsolias A, Goodliffe JW, Pathak D, Alba D, Pessina M, Rosene DL, Buller B, Moore TL

Abstract
Functional recovery after cortical injury, such as stroke, is associated with neural circuit reorganization, but the underlying mechanisms and efficacy of therapeutic interventions promoting neural plasticity in primates are not well-understood. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs), which mediate cell-to-cell inflammatory and trophic signaling, are thought be viable therapeutic targets. We recently showed in aged female rhesus monkeys that systemic administration of MSC-EVs enhances recovery of function after injury of the primary motor cortex, likely through enhancing plasticity in perilesional motor and premotor cortices. Here, using in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recording and intracellular filling in acute slices of ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) from rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) of either sex, we demonstrate that MSC-EVs reduce injury-related physiological and morphological changes in perilesional layer 3 pyramidal neurons. At 14-16 weeks post-injury, vPMC neurons from both vehicle- and EV-treated lesioned monkeys exhibited significant hyperexcitability and predominance of inhibitory synaptic currents, compared to neurons from non-lesioned control brains. However, compared to vehicle-treated monkeys, neurons from EV-treated monkeys showed lower firing rates, greater spike frequency adaptation, and excitatory:inhibitory ratio. Further, EV-treatment was associated with greater apical dendritic branching complexity, spine density and inhibition, indicative of enhanced dendritic plasticity and filtering of signals integrated at the soma. Importantly, the degree of EV-mediated reduction of injury-related pathology in vPMC was significantly correlated with measures of behavioral recovery. These data show that EV treatment dampens injury-related hyperexcitability and restores excitatory:inhibitory balance in vPMC, thereby normalizing activity within cortical networks for motor function.Significant Statement: Neuronal plasticity can facilitate recovery of function after cortical injury, but the underlying mechanisms and efficacy of therapeutic interventions promoting this plasticity in primates are not well-understood. Our recent work has shown that intravenous infusions of mesenchymal-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are involved in cell-to-cell inflammatory and trophic signaling can enhance recovery of motor function after injury in monkey primary motor cortex. This study shows that this EV-mediated enhancement of recovery is associated with amelioration of injury-related hyperexcitability and restoration of excitatory-inhibitory balance in perilesional ventral premotor cortex. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of mesenchymal EVs as a therapeutic to reduce injury-related pathological changes in the physiology and structure of premotor pyramidal neurons and support recovery of function.

PMID: 32241837 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology begins a Theme on "Cellular Processes in Tumor Metastasis: From Basic Research to Translation".

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American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology begins a Theme on "Cellular Processes in Tumor Metastasis: From Basic Research to Translation".

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2019 11 01;317(5):C867-C868

Authors: Chevet E

PMID: 31532717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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